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景德镇传统制瓷工艺 THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF PORCELAIN MAKING IN JINGDEZHEN

 

  • 瓷泥的开采与

  • Quarrying and Coarse Processing of Porcelain Clay

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高岭土的使用是我国乃至世界制瓷史上的一次重大革命。不仅扩大了制瓷原料的来源,而且改变了瓷器的性能。原来单一的瓷石泥料(史称一元配方)只能烧至1150℃左右,为软质瓷,制品变形率较高,胎色也不够白净。在瓷石原料中加入高岭土(史称二元配方)可烧至1330℃左右,不仅减少了制品的变形率,也让泥料的工艺性能更加适宜成型和加工。由于高岭土是一种疏松的土质原料,较易开采,且无须粉碎,可直接进入淘洗。

传统的淘洗方法是在山坡上挖好水槽,并在较平缓的地势中开挖三个淘洗池。池底及四壁均用砖或石块砌成,池与池之间以沟槽相连,并设闸板开关。在第一个淘洗池前方还需另设一排沙槽,以清除杂物。高岭土采集后,利用溪水将其冲下。在此过程中,沙石和粗料杂质沉于槽底,被高度约为槽深一半的闸板挡住,而细土则化成泥浆通过闸板上部流入淘洗池,在淘洗池稍作沉淀后,让上部的泥桨进入第二个淘洗池,再如法进入第三淘洗池,让其充分沉淀,再放掉清水。待各池中的高岭土成为稠泥后取出晾晒至一定程度,再制成规格一致的砖形不子,每块约两公斤,即可进入坯坊配制原料。在淘洗过程中,要及时清理槽底的沙石杂物,方法是暂停运输泥料,抽出下页图中的闸板1和闸板2。让水将槽底的沙石杂物冲掉,不同淘洗池的瓷土由于软硬粗细不同,可适应不同的瓷器成型要求。

景德镇瓷器胎质细腻、釉色莹润、造型款式多样、制作技艺精巧,素以“白如玉、薄如纸、明如镜、声如磬”的独特风格著称于世,其产品之精致,令人叹为观止。景德镇瓷器独特风格的形成,正是与当地所产优质原料紧密相关的。

 

 

The application of kaolin has been regarded as a far-reaching revolution in the history of porcelain in China, even in the world. It has not only increased sources of raw materials for porcelain making, but also changed the properties of porcelain. The originally single slurry of porcelain stone (called single recipe in history) can only fired up to approximately 1150.It is soft porcelain and has a high rate of distortion. The biscuit is not so pure white in color. The firing may reach 1330when mixing the raw materials of porcelain stone into Kaolin(called the binary recipe in history). It not only reduces the rate of distortion in products, but also makes it more appropriate to forming and manufacturing. As Kaolin is a loose raw material, it is easy to be quarried and needs no cracking so that it can be washed directly.

The traditional method of washing is as follows: Dig out a water trough on a hillside first and then three washing ponds on a flat ground whose bottom and four walls should be built by laying stones or bricks. All the ponds are connected with each other by the ditches with gates. There should also be a sand exhausting ditch in front of the washing pond in order to remove impurities. When Kaolin is quarried, it is washed down by stream. In the course of flushing, sand, stones and coarse impurities sink to the bottom of the trough and are blocked by the gate about half depth of the trough while fine clay becomes the fluid which flows into the washing pond over the gate. After a brief precipitation in the washing pond, the upper supernatant fluid will continue to flow into the second pond and the third pond in the same way. When the slurry fully settles, drain the water. When kaolin in all the ponds become thick clay, take it out and dry it to a certain lever. Then make it into standard brick-like blocks called Dunzi, weighing two kilograms each. Now it is the time to take them into the clay room to mix the raw materials. In the course of washing, it is important to clear away sand, stones and impurities from the bottom of the trough. The method is to stop delivery of clay for a short while and take out Gates No.1and 2. Wash away sand, stones and impurities with water. Due to the different porcelain clay in different washing ponds for its different qualities and particles, it will be adaptable to various shaping requirements of porcelain.

The porcelains in Jingdezhen are characterized by fine and smooth biscuit and sparkling glazes. It has multiple forms and styles and exquisite craftsmanship. It has already been well-known for its specific qualities described as “being as white as jade; as thin as paper, as white bright as glass and as sweet-sounding as the ancient chime stones”. The delicacy of her products is lost in wonder. It seems that the formation of the unique styles in Jingdezhen porcelain has a closer relationship with high-quality raw materials, superb craftsmanship of forming in their regions.

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 QUARRYING AND PROCESSING OF PORCELAIN CLAY 瓷泥的开采与加工

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