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景德镇传统制瓷工艺 THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF PORCELAIN MAKING IN JINGDEZHEN

 

  • 制瓷作坊结构

  • The Structure of Porcelain Workshop

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传统景德镇制瓷作坊,俗称坯坊,使成型操作的主要场所。现今所存的制瓷作坊是经过长期的演进而定型的。

景德镇制瓷作坊系有正间、廒间和泥房三座单体建筑组合成的庭院式建筑,使成型操作的专用场所。其中正间为成型操作之处,多取坐北朝南向,廒间为原料仓库,取坐南朝北向,二者相互平行,南北呼应。泥房位于正间西侧,向南伸展而与廒间相接,是泥料陈腐和精制之地。中部为矩形庭院,各间均向内院敞开,四周围有护墙,构成一个封闭式的庭院形式。在作坊建筑的屋顶下,建有穿斗式的木架,以木杆分高低不同将两组木架相连(称为间),这种架式构造就成为天然的坯架。

在内院与坡阶的临近地段挖设有晒架塘(也称晒架池),晒架塘有晒坯架与水池两部分组成:水池是一方向与坡阶相平行的长方形蓄水池,设于地下,常年贮水;晒坯架设于水池之上,供晒坯用。

池内水分蒸发速度随气温变化。在夏日烈日的照射下,蒸发速度较快,向上蒸发的水分对坯体的干燥速度可以起到一定的调节作用。晒架塘与房坯架仅一过道之隔,从房坯架移挑板至晒架转身即可,在南方下雨时又可尽快将晒架上的坯转至房坯架上,省时省力,其设计的合理性让人叹服。

现在景德镇的制瓷作坊,完全按此标准建造的已不多见,但保留完好并在正常生产的传统成型作坊仍有不少。

 

 

The traditional porcelain workshop (locally called the biscuit house) in Jingdezhen is the principal place for shaping operations. The structures of the existing workshops today have been finalized over a long-term evolvement.

 The porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen, a special place for shaping operations, is a courtyard architecture composed of three individual buildings: the main hall, granary and the clay house, of which the main hall is mainly for shaping operations and usually faces to the south. The granary is a storehouse of raw materials, looking to the north. The two buildings are parallel with each other. The clay house is located at the western end of the main hall and extends southwards till it is joined with the granary. The clay house is mainly for aging and tramping of clay. In the middle of the architecture is a rectangular yard and the doors of all the houses, surrounded by inclosing walls on all the sides, are wide open to the inner yard. All of them constitute a enclosed type of courtyard. Under the roof of the main hall are wooden racks. The two groups of wooden racks are joined with wooden rods (called room). The rack structure is a ready-make rack for drying biscuit.

A drying-rack basin (also called drying-rack pond) is dug out in a place between the inner yard and slope. The drying-rack basin is composed of such two parts as biscuit-drying racks and the water basin. The basin is actually a rectangular reservoir with its long sides in parallel with slopes. The reservoir is underground and stores water all the year round. The biscuit-drying racks, setup above the basin, are mainly for drying biscuits.

A drying-rack basin (also called drying-rack pond) is dug out in a place between the inner yard and the slope. The drying-rack basin is composed of such two parts as biscuit-drying racks and the water basin. The basin is actually a rectangular reservoir with its long sides in parallel with slopes. The reservoir is underground and stores water all the year round. The biscuit-drying racks, set up above the basin, are mainly for drying biscuits.

The evaporation rate of water in the basin varies in accordance with changes of the temperatures. With the scorching sun directly overhead in summer, the rate is much high and the evaporative moisture will play a role in slowing the drying of biscuit to some extent. There is only a corridor between the drying-rack basin and the biscuit racks in the main hall and it is quite easy for potters to turn around quickly when they shift the long board from the biscuit racks in the main hall to the biscuit-drying racks. It is also convenient to take the biscuits on the biscuit-drying racks back to the biscuit racks in the main hall quickly when it rains as there is much rain in the South of China. Therefore, it saves efforts and time. Such a rationalized design is perfect.

Nowadays, few of the porcelain workshops in Jingdezhen have been set up completely by these design criteria, but there are still many traditional shaping workshops which have survived well and still work normally today.

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 QUARRYING AND PROCESSING OF PORCELAIN CLAY 瓷泥的开采与加工

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