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景德镇传统制瓷工艺 THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF PORCELAIN MAKING IN JINGDEZHEN

 

  • 揉泥、拉坯工艺

  • Kneading and Throwing

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在拉坯之前,需先将泥房内经过陈腐的泥料取出踩炼,踩炼的第一步踩泥,俗称;“踩莲花墩”。然后再以手工揉泥,景德镇称“挪泥”。操作的主要目的是将泥料中残余的气泡以手工搓揉的方法排出,并使泥料中的水分进一步均匀,以防止烧成过程中产生气泡、变形或开裂。揉泥大约有两种方式:一种类似揉面,泥形呈旋涡状;另一种形似羊头,俗称“卷羊头”,景德镇大都采用此方式。搂泥操作一般是在一条长板凳或平整的青石板(俗称“码头”)上进行,泥凳前低后高,便于用力。操作是与凳面上垫一块白布,操作者骑坐在凳上双手用力揉压泥团,依次将空气排挤出。搓揉成长条形后,竖起压短,进行第二次搓揉。如此反复数次即可。

拉坯是成型的第一道工序。由于景德镇瓷泥的柔软性,且需内外修坯,拉制的坯体均比其他黏土要厚。拉坯不仅要注意到收缩比,而且还应注意到造型。根据不同的造型,较大的制品还要分段拉制。从在哪个部位分段,可以看出拉坯师傅的技艺好坏和水平高低。 

 

Take the aged clay out of a storehouse for wedging before throwing. The first step of kneading is tramping by feet as called “tramping on lotus mound” by the local people and then knead by hands. Potters in Jingdezhen call it “nuoni” (it means tramping clay). The main purpose is to press air bubbles out of clay by the way of hand kneading and make the moisture in the clay more well-balanced in order to prevent air bubbles, distortation or cracks from being produced in the course of firing. Two methods of kneading dough and the clay is in shape of vortex. The other is like the head of an sheep, called “crinkled head of sheep”, applied by most of the potters in Jingdezhen. Hand kneading is generally done on a long bench or a stone table (local potters call it “pier”). The front part of the bench is lower than the aft part and it is convenient for potters to put forth their strength while kneading. When kneading, a piece of white cloth covers the bench and potters ride on the bench, kneading the clay balls hard by hands in order to press air bubbles out of clay. When clay is kneaded into a long piece, set it up and press it shorter before starting the second round of kneading. Repeat the above processes for dozens of times.

Throwing is the first step of forming. Due to the softness of porcelain biscuit of Jingdezhen, the body for throwing is usually thicker than that of other clay. While throwing, not only the contract ratio, but also the shapes, should be paid much attention to. In accordance with the different shapes, it is necessary to have a good control of throwing in sections when throwing larger vessels. Speaking the truth, it is the touchstone of potters’ skills in throwing.

拉坯饼 BISCUIT BAT 方板 SQUARE BOARD
 

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 SHAPING 成型工艺

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