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景德镇传统制瓷工艺 THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF PORCELAIN MAKING IN JINGDEZHEN

 

  • 补水工艺

  • Skill of Water Replenishing

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凡拉制成型后的坯体经干燥和利坯之后,均需逐个补水。因为手工拉坯产品经利坯之后坯面常有细孔和细小刀痕,并附着坯粉和灰尘,如果直接施釉,烧制过程极易导致麻点、针孔、缩釉等釉面缺陷。补水一方面可使坯面更加平整,消除利坯痕迹,除去吸附在坯面上的坯屑、粉尘等杂物,减少产生釉面缺陷的可能性;另一方面,通过补水发现坯体中隐藏的气孔和“死泥”(揉泥时未清除的混在湿泥料中的硬泥团),提高成品率。

一般于补水前先清扫、吹净坯体内外的灰尘杂质等,在用特制的补水笔蘸清水刷抹。补水时应注意保持水清洁,经常换水,防止水中沾有油渍或污物、杂质,或者容易产生缩釉等缺陷。

 

All of the thrown biscuits, after drying and trimming, need water replenishing. The main reason is that there still exist fine pores and fine marks left by knife on the surface of the hand-thrown biscuit, which is covered by biscuit powder and dust. If applying glazes directly, such defaults as dots, needle’s eye are quite easy to be produced in the course of firing. On the one hand, the method of water replenishing is used to make the surface of the biscuit smoother, remove the traces left by trimming, clean away such impurities as the biscuit chips and dust stick to the surface and decrease the potential glaze faults; on the other hand, the hidden pores and “dead clay” (the dead clay refers to the stiff balls in the wet clay which have not been removed when kneading) in the biscuit may be found when applying water so as to increase the rate of finished products.

Under normal conditions, the work of water replenishing should be done after cleaning and blowing away the dust inside and outside of the biscuit. Use a special water replenishing brush to wet the biscuit with clear water. Pay more attention to keep the water clean while replenishing water and to change water from time so as not to have oil stains, dirt and other impurities in the water. Otherwise, it is quite easy to produce crawling.

1~2. 补水工具:水盆或水缸;补水笔,笔杆尖头是用于挑挖坯体上的死泥和气孔的;补水盆边需有一块木条,上放与补水坯件一致的泥料,用于填补挖坯体的小空隙
  • 1~2. Tools for water replenishing: water box or water vat; water replenishing brush. The sharp tip of the shaft is used to prick and pick out the: dead clay” and pores in the biscuit. It is necessary to have a piece of wood by the water basin to have some clay which is the same as the that of the biscuit on the wood, which is used to fill the pores in the biscuit after being pricked

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 SHAPING 成型工艺

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