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景德镇传统制瓷工艺 THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF PORCELAIN MAKING IN JINGDEZHEN

 

 

青花是景德镇的四大传统名瓷之一 ,  起始于唐宋时期 , 成熟于元代 , 它的出现在我国制瓷史上有着划时代的重要意义 . 正是由于青花瓷的出现 , 才使景德镇成为真正意义上的世界瓷都 , 影响并推动世界制瓷业的发展 . 青花瓷器是我国最具民族象征意义的陶瓷产品之一 , 延续生产几百年长盛不衰 .

青花彩绘颜料------青花料 , 是以氧化钴为主要发色剂的金属氧化色料 .

手工绘画的青花料分画线条料和分水料 . 画线条用的料是湿料 , 可直接使用

分水料的处理要复杂些 , 在调水色的浓淡之前 , 要进行一次泡料处理 . 跑料的方法是 : 将磨细的湿料放在大碗中 , 比例约为1/3 , 用汤匙将料搅散 , 然后用开水对料冲泡 , 同时用汤匙不停的搅动 , 直至水面泛起泡沫为止 . 待其沉淀后 , 撇去上面的清水 , 就可分碗调制水色 . 分碗时要注意根据所需控制料量的多少 , 并对入适量的茶水 , 加茶水时也要搅动 , 防止“生水”。“生水”是分水中出现的一种现象 ,即在分水时料与水不融合,水,料分体,影响青花发色和装饰的表现力 。 茶水不能太浓,否则茶叶中的胶汁会生涎 ,使料结块,影响分水质量。

传统青花手工绘制有两个过程:勾线和分水。勾线和分水要掌握料性,料性的掌握非一日之功,一些画匠尽其一生也未必能随其心意。国画中有墨分五色之说,在青花中也是讲究青分五色的,且形成多种独特的表现技巧。在装饰中,虽各有不同方式,但基本步骤是一致的。

分水(也称混水)是青花特有的表现技法,使用特制的鸡头笔。分水用得料水,浓淡要分开调好并装碗,一般分3~5色,装分水料的碗称“水碗”。分水时青花的色彩处理,不同的色彩概括为不同亮度的色阶,青花水色一般分5色,机头浓,二浓,浓水,淡水和应淡。在操作的过程中,坯的干湿,运笔速度的快慢,积水时间的长短都直接关系到水色的浓淡。一般规律是:坯体湿,运笔快,积水时间短水色就淡;反之,运笔慢,坯体干,积水时间长水色就会浓。在分水技巧上要掌握落笔,收笔和运笔过程中两手的配合。现将分水笔进入料中蘸料提起,待笔上料水下流成滴装后将笔舐成肚大头针形状,就可执笔分水。落笔时,笔中满含料水,因此对弧形坯体尽量将凸面顶端与笔锋相对,落笔后迅速用笔锋带动料水移动,不可擦动泥坯,应与坯体保持一定空隙,主要是避免笔锋摩擦坯泥掺入料水中影响发色(发色是指烧成后青花的呈色状态)。在分水达到要求的部位,防止料水过量,要及时收水。收水的方法是:将坯体倾斜,鸡头笔的笔锋朝上,笔肚向下,料水就会顺着笔脉渗入笔中。在操作前一般将棉毡托住坯体置于双腿之上,除执笔的手在运笔中注意快慢和紧松外,另一只手则信托住坯体用两腿高低起伏来调整坯体的位置,使料水的移动更能随心所欲。

中国传统的书画工具是毛笔,青花彩绘用笔同样也离不开它,但由于材料和工艺过程的不同,彩绘工具与普通绘画用笔相比显得尤为复杂和多样。除主要工具外,还创造了许多辅助工具,其工具的完备和应用的巧妙是构成青花装饰艺术特点的因素之一。

   
 

The blue-and-white is one of the four famous traditional porcelains is jingdezhen . It appeared as early as the Tang and Song dynasties ,but they did not flourish until the Yuan period . Its appearance has an epoch-making significance in the history of porcelain in our country . It is appearance of the blue-and-white that makes Jingdezhen the capital of porcelain of the world in a true sense ,which has influenced and promoted the development of the porcelain industry in the world . The blue-and-white porcelain is one of the ceramic products with the most symbolic significance of our ethnic cultures . It has been produced for hundreds of year .

The blue-and-white pigment-the blue-and-white colors-is metal-oxide color with cobalt oxide as its main developing agent .The blue-and-white pigments used for hand painting are divided into two categories: drawing line (xianliao) and splashing (fenshui) . The pigment for drawing lines is wet and can be used directly .

The treatment of the fenshui pigment is more complicated .Before mixing the pigment with water , steep the pigment first . The steeping method is as follows : put the ground wet pigment into a large bowl , about one third , stir it with a spoon . Then pour some boiling water into the bowl while mixing it with the spoon ceaselessly until there are foams on the surface. Wait till it settles and scoop up the supernatant water . Finally we can mix the watered pigment of different shades in different bowls .Pay more attention to the amount when dividing the watered pigment and then add an appropriate amount of tea water into the bowls . It is also necessary to stir while adding the tea in order to avoid “raw water” . The so-called “raw water” is a usual phenomenon in the fenshui , i . e. the pigment and water cannot be blended fully .The separation of the pigment and water will influence both the development of the blue-and-white and the expressiveness in decoration . The tea cannot be too strong , or the colloidal substance in the tea will agglomerate the pigment in the bowl and influence the quality of fenshui .

The traditional hand-painting in of the blue-and-white have two stages: drawing lines and painting (locally called fenshui). Potters must be quite familiar with the properties of the pigment when he starts to draw lines . In fact, it usually takes time and efforts to have a full knowledge of its properties . Some of the potters have spent their whole life on their research of these properties , but they may not have a full comprehension of them . In the traditional Chinese painting , the ink has five shades . In a same sense , the blue-and-white not only has the same shades , but also has various expressiveness based on different skills . In the decorations , the basic procedures are almost the same though different methods exist in them .

In the blue-and-white , fenshui (also called hunshui) is a special skill in decoration by using the special jitou brush (meaning chicken head brush ). The water pigment for fenshui is filled different bowls for holding the watered fenshui pigment is called “water bowl” by the local potters . Fenshui is the treatment of colors in the blue-and-white and different colors different hues and lightness . The watered pigment of the blue-and-white is usually divided into five shades : the gluey (tounong) the thick (ernong) , the heavy (nongshui) ,the thin (danshui) and the light shade (yingdan) .In the operating process , such factors as the dryness of biscuit , the speed of wielding a brush and the drying time of the watered pigment have an intimate relationship with the shades of the water pigment . Generally speaking , the wet biscuit , fast wielding and short drying time will result in the light shade and , vice versa , the slow wielding , dry biscuit and long drying time will lead to the darker shade . In application of the fenshui techniques , it is very important to keep the harmony of the hands in the whole course of wielding a brush . First , dip the fenshui brush into the bowl and lift it up when the brush is soaked . When beginning to paint , try to direct the tip of the brush right at the top of the vortex surface of an arch biscuit as the brush is soaked with the watered pigment . wield the brush to paint quickly . Do not be so close to the biscuit and keep an interval with the biscuit . The main purpose is to prevent the tip of the brush from scrubbing the biscuit and mixing some particles of clay into the watered pigment , which is to influence the color generation of the pigment (color generation refers to the shade after firing ) . As soon as painting the required parts , it is necessary to absorb the moisture in time in order to avoid too much moisture on the surface . The water-absorbing method is as follows: tilt the biscuit and put the tip of the brush upwards and the watered pigment will seep back into the brush . Before the operating process , the normal way is to put the biscuit between two legs with a piece of thick felt or cotton fabric in between as A mat . As having a good control of the brush by one hand , one should hold the biscuit by moving the legs up and down in order to have a free brushing of the watered pigment .

The traditional painting tool is the writing-brush in China and it is a must to paint the blue-and-white . Due to the different materials and processes , the tools for decoration are more complicated and various than the common painting brushes . In addition to the main tools , there are also many auxiliary ones . A full set of tools and an delicate application have formed one the specific features of the blue-and-white decoration .

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 PAINTED DECORATION 装饰技艺

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