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景德镇传统制瓷工艺 THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF PORCELAIN MAKING IN JINGDEZHEN

 

  • 釉里红装饰

  • The Underglaze Red Decoration

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釉里红的主要呈色剂是氧化铜,俗称“铜花”,经过配制后在坯体上装饰,罩透明釉烧成,在釉里发出红色,是景德镇具较高声誉和影响的名贵品种。釉里红最早起源于唐代的长沙窑,但却是在元代的景德镇得以兴盛和发展并成为景德镇极具代表性的装饰品类。

釉里红发色变化大,通常是呈鲜艳的红色调,时有灰红或淡红出现,并间有绿色和青白色的点或色块;有的部分在红色的周围晕散为浅红色调,犹如在生宣纸上的效果;有的还出现黄色。同样一种色料,在釉和火焰的作用下呈色丰富多样,变化万千,不能不让人惊叹泥火造物的神奇。

釉里红的装饰绘制工艺与青花绘制工艺相同,在实际运用中常和青花相配合,共同装饰陶瓷器皿,称“青花釉里红”,单独使用称“釉里红”。它有两种工艺方法:一是用材料直接绘制于坯胎,罩青白釉,入窑烧成;另一种是先在坯胎上施一层稀薄的青白釉作为底釉,再用彩料进行绘画,然后再罩面釉入窑烧成,彩料呈色于两层青白釉之间,故称“釉里红”。早期釉里红产品多用这种方法,所以有人称釉里红是釉中彩的鼻祖。现常用的绘制方法是直接在坯胎上进行彩绘。釉里红直接绘于坯体上,线型保持较好。釉里红流动性不大,但发色有时欠佳,在釉中则易流动,故现今常有人使用此法进行写意装饰。

 

In addition to the blue-and-white( the under glaze blue) ,the under glaze red is also  one  of the varieties of the under glaze decorations in the traditional porcelains of  our country .The principal coloring  agent of the under glaze red is the copper oxide , locally called  the copper motifAfter formulating,it is painted on the biscuit as a decoration coated by a layer of transparent glaze.It looks red in color under the glaze.It is one of the most famous varieties of the Jingdezhen porcelains which have enjoyed great reputation and produced great influences.The under glaze red,though originating in Changsha Kiln in the Tang Dynasty,developed and flourished in Jingdezhen in the Yuan Dynasty and became the most representative decoration in Jingdezhen.

The under glaze red varies in the field of color generation.It normally has a color hue of bright red,but sometimes  of grayish red or light red with green or blue white dots or blocks.The red is sometimes surrounded by the hue of light red around it,just like the effect on the Xuan Paper.It sometimes even produces the yellow hue.It is no wonder that the same coloring pigment is able to produce rich colors under the under glaze influences in the flames and people are astonished at the magic products of the clay and fire.

The skills of painting decoration with the under glaze red have some similarities to those of the under glaze blue decoration.It is usually applied in combination with the blue-and-white in the normal practices of decorating the porcelain wares .Thus,it is called  the under glaze blue and under glaze red and  the under glaze red  when it is applied alone .It has two methods of application :the one is to apply the color pigment directly to the biscuit and coat the blueandwhite ,followed by firing in a kiln ;the other is to apply a thin layer of the blue-and-white glaze to the biscuit as the ground glaze before decorating with the under glaze red,  followed by the coating glaze  before  firing in a kiln .The color pigment develops between two layers of  qingbai  glaze so that it is called  the under glaze  redSuch a method was mainly applied to the early under glaze red wares .Therefore,some potters called the under glaze red as the forerunner of the in glaze  decoration.  The current decorative techniques are to apply decoration directly to the biscuit .The under glaze red applied directly to the biscuit has good lines as it has low fluidity .But its color generation is not so good and it has a high fluidity in the glaze so that potters are used to apply xieyi (freehand  )brushing decoration at present.

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 PAINTED DECORATION 装饰技艺

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